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Bleaching

To whiten up the colour of natural dentition

When we look at at nature we hardly find perfect white teeth.Sometimes due to overdose of antibiotics like tetracyiclines or fluor uptake we see some instrinsic discolorations.Furthermore the daily consumption of highly discolouring agents such as wine ,coke,tea,coffee and smoking is the cause of what we call as extrinsic discolorations.To have a tooth clening can make you get rid of al exrinsic stains whereas to be freed of instrinsic stains bleaching is the choice of treatment.

What happens during bleaching?

During bleaching a common oxidation and reduction proces takes place.The peroxites that are found in bleaching agents penetrate in thin prismatic structure of the enamel and cause break up of colour molecules which causes the bleaching of the tooth.According to studies it is proved to be a safe and effective method.

Whitening Systems

Whitening Toothpastes

All toothpastes help remove surface stains because they have mild abrasives. Some whitening toothpastes contain gentle polishing or chemical agents that provide additional stain removal effectiveness. Whitening toothpastes can help remove surface stains only and do not contain bleach; over-the-counter and professional whitening products contain hydrogen peroxide (a bleaching substance) that helps remove stains on the tooth surface as well as stains deep in the tooth.

Whitening toothpastes can lighten your tooth’s color by about one shade. In contrast, light-activated whitening conducted in your dentist’s office (see below) can make your teeth three to eight shades lighter.

Over-the-Counter Whitening Strips and Gels

Whitening gels are clear, peroxide-based gels applied with a small brush directly to the surface of your teeth. Instructions generally call for twice a day application for 14 days. Initial results are seen in a few days and final results are sustained for about 4 months. The retail cost for this product is about $15 for a 14-day treatment.

Whitening strips are very thin, virtually invisible strips that are coated with a peroxide-based whitening gel. The strips are applied twice daily for 30 minutes for 14 days. Initial results are seen in a few days and final results are sustained for about 4 months. The retail cost for this product ranges from $10 to $55 for a 14-day treatment.

Tray-Based Tooth Whitening Products

Tray based tooth whitening systems, purchased either over-the-counter or from your dentist, involve filling a mouth guard-like tray with a gel whitening solution – which contains a peroxide-bleaching agent – and wearing the tray for a period of time, generally from a couple hours a day to every day during the night for up to 4 weeks and even longer (depending on the degree of staining and desired level of whitening).

Learn more about the differences between over-the-counter tray-based whitening systems and one obtained from the dentist.

In-Office Whitening

In-office bleaching provides the quickest and most effective way to whiten teeth. With in-office bleaching, the whitening product is applied directly to the teeth. These products can be used in combination with heat, a special light, and/or a laser. The light and/or heat accelerate the whitening process. Results are seen in only 1, 30- to 60-minute treatment. But, to achieve dramatic results, several appointments are usually needed. However, with laser-enhanced bleaching, dramatic results can be seen after the first treatment.

How Long Do the Whitening Effects Last?

Whitening is not permanent. People who expose their teeth to foods and beverages that cause staining may see the whiteness start to fade in as little as 1 month. Those who avoid foods and beverages that stain may be able to wait one year or longer before another whitening treatment or touch-up is needed.

The degree of whiteness will vary from individual to individual depending on the condition of the teeth, nature of the stain, the type of bleaching system used and for how long.

Over-the-Counter At-Home Teeth Whitening Vs. Dentist-Supervised Teeth Whitening Products

There are differences between the two, including:

  • Strength of bleaching agent. Over-the-counter home use products and dentist-supervised at-home products usually contain a lower strength-bleaching agent from 10% carbamide peroxide, which is equivalent to about 3% hydrogen peroxide, up to 22% carbamide peroxide. In-office, professionally applied tooth whitening products contain hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 15% to 43%.
  • Mouthpiece trays. With dentist-supervised at-home bleaching products, your dentist will take an impression of your teeth and make a mouthpiece tray that is customized to exactly fit your teeth. This customization allows for maximum contact between the whitening gel, which is applied to the mouthpiece tray, and the teeth. A custom-made tray also minimizing the gel’s contact with gum tissue. Over-the-counter whitening products also contain a mouthpiece tray, but the “one-size-fits-all” approach means that the fit will not be exact. Ill-fitting trays can irritate the gum and soft tissue by allowing more bleaching gel to seep onto these tissues. With in-office procedures, the bleaching agent is applied directly to the teeth.
  • Additional protective measures. In the office setting, your dentist will apply either a gel to the gum tissue or use a rubber shield (which slides over the teeth) prior to treatment to protect your gums and oral cavity from the effects of the bleaching. Over-the-counter products don’t provide these extra protective measures.
  • Costs. Over-the-counter bleaching systems are the least expensive option, with costs ranging from $20 to about $150. Depending on where you live and the extent of the procedure, dentist-supervised home bleaching systems range in cost from approximately $150 to $300 per upper or lower set of teeth, or $300 to $600 for the whole mouth
  • Supervised vs. unsupervised process. Dentist-supervised at-home bleaching and in-office treatments offer additional benefits compared with over-the-counter procedures. First, your dentist can perform an oral examination and consider your complete medical history, which can be helpful in determining how your teeth became discolored and if bleaching is an appropriate course of treatment based on your type and extent of stains and type, number and location of restorations. Your dentist can then better match the type of stain with the best treatment, if appropriate, to lighten those stains. With dentist-supervised bleaching procedures, your dentist will likely want to see you a couple of times to ensure you are following directions, to make sure the customized tray is fitting properly, to inspect your gums for signs of irritation, and to generally check on how the teeth whitening process is proceeding. With over-the-counter bleaching products, you are on your own.

Who Should Not Undergo Teeth Whitening?

Whitening is not recommended or will be less successful in the following circumstances:

  • Age and pregnancy issues. Bleaching is not recommended in children under the age of 16. This is because the pulp chamber, or nerve of the tooth, is enlarged until this age. Teeth whitening under this condition could irritate the pulp or cause it to become sensitive. Teeth whitening is also not recommended in pregnant or lactating women.
  • Sensitive teeth and allergies. Individuals with sensitive teeth and gums, receding gums and/or defective restorations should consult with their dentist prior to using a tooth whitening system. Anyone allergic to peroxide (the whitening agent) should not use a bleaching product.
  • Gum disease, worn enamel, cavities, and exposed roots. Individuals with gum disease or teeth with worn enamel are generally discouraged from undergoing a tooth whitening procedure. Cavities need to be treated before undergoing any whitening procedure. This is because the whitening solutions penetrate into any existing decay and the inner areas of the tooth, which can cause sensitivity. Also, whitening procedures will not work on exposed tooth roots because roots do not have an enamel layer.
  • Fillings, crowns and other restorations. Tooth-colored fillings and resin composite materials used in dental restorations (crowns, veneers, bonding, bridges) do not whiten. Therefore, using a whitening agent on teeth that contain restorations will results in uneven whitening-in this case, making the teeth without restorations appear lighter than those with restorations. Any whitening procedure should be done prior to the placement of restorations. Individuals with numerous restorations that would result in uneven whitening may be better off considering bonding, veneers or crowns rather than a tooth whitening system. Ask your dentist what strategy is best for you.
  • Unrealistic expectations. Individuals who expect their teeth to be a new “blinding white” may be disappointed with their results. Smokers need to be aware that their results will be limited unless they refrain from continued smoking, particularly during the bleaching process. A healthy guide as to a reasonable degree of whiteness to achieve with a whitening process that would give a natural appearance to a person’s teeth is a slightly whiter color than the whites of your eyes.

Darkly stained teeth. Yellowish teeth respond well to bleaching, brownish-colored teeth respond less well and grayish-hue or purple-stained teeth may not respond to bleaching at all. Blue-gray staining caused by tetracycline is more difficult to lighten and may require up to 6 months of home treatments or several in-office appointments to successfully lighten. Teeth that have dark stains may be better candidates for another lightening option, such as veneers, bonding, or crowns. Your dentist can discuss the options best suited for you.

Risks Associated With Teeth Whitening

The two side effects that occur most often are a temporary increase in tooth sensitivity and mild irritation of the soft tissues of the mouth, particularly the gums. Tooth sensitivity often occurs during early stages of the bleaching treatment. Tissue irritation most commonly results from an ill-fitting mouthpiece tray rather than the tooth-bleaching agent. Both of these conditions usually are temporary and disappear within 1 to 3 days of stopping or completing treatment.

If you do experience sensitivity, you can reduce or eliminate it by:

  • Wearing the tray for a shorter period of time (for example, two 30-minute sessions vs. two 60-minute sessions)
  • Stop whitening your teeth for two to three days to allow your teeth to adjust to the whitening process
  • Ask your dentist or pharmacist for a high fluoride-containing product, which can help remineralize your teeth. Apply the fluoride product to the tray and wear for 4 minutes prior to and following the whitening agent.

Brush your teeth with a toothpaste made for sensitive teeth. These toothpastes contain potassium nitrate, which helps soothe your teeth’s nerve endings.

Tips to Consider When Choosing an Over-the-Counter Whitening Kit

  • Try to select a kit that allows some customization of the mouthpiece. Some kits come with a mouthpiece that can be molded to some degree. These are better than others that come with a standard mouthpiece.
  • Try to gain the opinion of others who may have already tried the kit you are considering.
  • If at any time you experience a prolonged change in the color of your gums or an increased tooth sensitivity to hot or cold foods and beverages, stop wearing the mouthpiece and see your dentist immediately.
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